A chalazion is defined as a bump like lesion that appears on either the upper or lower eyelids. It occurs due to the blockage of a meibomian gland on the eyelid. Meibomian glands produce oil.

Incidence of chalazion tends to occur if patients touch their eyelids with dirty hands, poor removal of makeup, or in the case of meibomian gland dysfunction such as in the case of ocular rosacea.

Symptoms associated with chalazion are often:

  • Hard lump on the eyelid
  • Increased watery eyes
  • Blocked vision due to eyelid droop
  • Tenderness on eyelids

Treatment of chalazion can be by hot compress where this is applied several times a day to reduce the swelling, this helps to soften the oils in the blocked meibomian gland. Antibiotic drops or ointments as well as steriods in severe cases. If not responsive to non-invasive treatments surgical treatment may be advised.



Entropian is a condition where the eyelid turns inwards. This results in increased irritation as the eyelashes and skin rub against the surface of the eye. Symptoms often include red irritated eyes with excessive watering.

This often tends to occur in the older population and generally only affects the lower eyelids.

Treatment includes ocular lubricants but quite often surgery will be required.



Ectropian is a condition where the eyelid turns out. It most commonly occurs with the bottom eyelids and causes the inner eye to be exposed leading to irritation. The level of severity can vary depending on how much of the lower segment eyelid is turned out.

Commonly ocular lubricants are used but ultimately surgery will be required. The population mostly affected by this condition are the elderly.



Blepharoplasty is usually classified as a cosmetic procedure it is the surgical removal of excessive skin and to either add or reduce fat from the eyelids. Surgery can include the upper or lower eyelids.

Surgery is a day procedure, performed with a local anaesthetic .Recovery is quite quick with most patients returning to work or normal activities within a few days.